The Countries of the BCLME

The Republic of Angola




Area: 1,246,700 km2 (23rd)

Population: 18,498,000 (2009 estimate)
Population density: 14.8/km2
GDP (nominal 2010): US$85.312 billion
GDP (per capita): US$4,4770.403
Currency: Kwanza
Internet TLD: .ao
Calling code: +244
(Source: www.wikipedia.org)




Marine and Coastal Environment:

The Angolan coastline is 1 650km long and is strongly influenced by the interaction of warm water in the Angola Current flowing southwards and cold water in the Benguela Current flowing northwards. The meeting of the two currents forms a thermal front known as the "Angola-Benguelafront". The front usually occurs between 14 and 16°S and is one of the most productive regions of the BCLME.

The seasonal movement of the frontal zoneis important for the distribution of fish.Da Franca (1968) characterised twodifferent faunal complexes along theAngolan coast: the "Guinea-tropical fauna" in the northern and central region and the "Benguela fauna" off southern Angola. However, elements from both faunal complexes may occur around 14-15° as suggested by the distribution of some species like the horse mackerels and hakes.


The area from Lobito to the mouth of the Cunene River, also known as the southernfishing zone, is by far the most productive of Angola's fishing zones, with an abundanceof horse mackerel, sardines, tunas and a range of demersal species including large-eye Dentex, (Dentexmacrophthalamus), other sea breams, porgies, hakes (incl. Merlucciuscapensis and M. polli), groupers and croakers. The central fishing zone stretches from Luanda to Benguela and yields mainly sardinellas (Sardinellamaderensis and S. aurita),horse mackerel (Trachuruscapensis)and demersal species. The northern fishing zone extends from Luanda toCabinda and includes populations of horse mackerel and sardinellas and a smallerproportion of demersal species.

Industrial fisheries target horse mackerel,sardinella, tunas, shrimps, deep sea red crab, lobsters and other demersal fishes, landing approximately 170 000 tonnesfrom 200 fishing vessels. Purse-seining and trawling are the most common fishing technique.

There is a large artisianal fishing fleet in Angola. In 2005, it was estimated that some 31 528 Angolans earnedtheir living as artisanal fishers, workomg from between 3 000 and 4 500 small boats (usually without engines) and deploying traditional fishing gear to target fish from the shore. Artisanal fishing activities take place along the entire coast, with 102 regular landing sites identified. Artisanal fishers generally supply fish to local markets. Although it is men who go to sea to catch the fish, it is women who process, market and sell the catch. As a result, the contribution of fisheries to the socio-economic well being of many Angolans cannot be underestimated. Fish is also an extremely important source of protein for the population of Angola.

Consumption of fish is estimated to be about 15 kg per person, well above the 14 kg recommended by the World Health Organisation. In Angola, nearly one third of required animal protein is derived from fish.

Fisheries are managed by the Angolan Ministry of Agriculture Rural Development and Fisheries, though the Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture. The National Institute of Fisheries Research (InstitutoNacional de InvestigaçãoPesqueira) conducts marine and fisheries research while the Institute for the Development of Artisanal Fisheries and Aquaculture (Instituto deDesenvolvimento da PescaArtesanal) is responsible for promoting the development of small scale fisheries.

For detailed information on Angolan fisheries, download a National Fishery Sector Overview for Angola from the website of FAO: http://www.fao.org/fishery/countrysector/FI-CP_AO/en

The Petroleum Industry:

Over the past three years, Angola has become the largest crude oil producing country in Africa, surpassing Nigeriain 2009 due to attacks on the oil infrastructure in the Niger Delta. Oil plays an important role in the Angolan economy, accounting for over 90 percent of export revenues and over 80 percent of GDP. Despite crude oil production limitations imposed by OPEC, Angola is expected to increase oil production and capacity in the short-term as new offshore projects come online and foreign investment continues to flow into the sector.

Natural gas production in Angola is tied directly to oil production and is often vented or flared, with limited volumes consumed domestically. Plans are underway to capture and market this natural gas for domestic electricity generation and to export most of it in the form of liquefied natural gas (LNG) by 2012.

The majority of Angola's oil reserves are located in offshore blocks. However, there are some proven reserves onshore around the northern city of Soyo and also in Cabinda Province.

For detailed information on Angola's oil and gas industry visit the website of the US Energy Information Administration: http://www.eia.gov/countries/cab.cfm?fips=AO

Additional Reading:

UN news about Angola: http://www.irinnews.org/country/ao/angola

News from a local media house (in Portuguese): http://jornaldeangola.sapo.ao//

Statistics and information about the geography, population, history and government of Angola: http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/6619.htm

Statistics and facts from the World Factbook: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ao.html





Area: 25,615 km2
Population: 2,113,077 (2011 census)
Population density: 2.54/km2
GDP (nominal 2010): $13.064 billion
GDP (per capita): $8,577
Currency: Namibian Dollar (NAD)
Internet TLD: .na
Calling code: +264
(Source: www.wikipedia.org)





Namibia's fishing grounds are among the most productive in the world. About 20 species are exploited commercially; the largest by volume is horse mackerel (Trachuruscapensis) and the largest by value is hake (Merlucciuscapensis and M. paradoxus).

Rock lobsters are exploited in shallow inshore waters, while large pelagic species – such as tunas and swordfish – and deep-sea species, such as monk and deep-sea crab, are caught offshore.

Namibia's small pelagic fishery for sardine (Sardinopssagax) has not responded as expected to stock rebuilding efforts and the decline of this once valuable fishery is the cause of national concern. The sardine population was seriously reduced during the 1990s, probably as a result of harmful environmental events and the effects of over-fishing during the period prior to independence in 1991.

Other species caught for the export market include oysters, seaweed, sole, kingklip, panga, John dory, angelfish, shark, kob, squid, cardinal fish, Cape gurnard, grenadier, Jacopever, chub mackerel, octopus and mullet.Catches of orange roughy have been small in recent years.

Catches are landed at two major ports: Walvis Bay and Lüderitz. Approximately 30 fish processing plants operate in Namibia. The bulk of these facilities are situated in Walvis Bay, situated as it is at the centre of the fishing grounds.

Besides important marine capture fisheries, Namibia also has a small but vibrant aquaculture sector. Marine aquaculture is dominated by oyster production. Both Pacific oyster (Crassostreagigas) and European oyster (Ostreaedulis) are grown. Culture methods include baskets suspended from rafts, longlines and onshore raceways and ponds.

There is enormous potential to increase aquaculture production in Namibia. The country's 1 500km-long coastline is largely uninhabited and marine waters are unpolluted and naturally high in productivity.

For detailed information on Namibian fisheries, visit the website of FAO: http://www.fao.org/fishery/countrysector/FI-CP_NA/en

Marine Mining:

The gem quality diamonds that are mined in Namibia's coastal and marine environment are world renowned. The diamonds were originally transported via the Orange River into the Atlantic Ocean and distributed northwards by long-shore currents. As onshore diamond reserves become depleted, so diamond mining is moving offshore. Mid-water and deep-water mining operations use sophisticated marine vessels and crawlers that are capable of retrieving diamondiferous gravels and sands from the seafloor.

The major diamond producing company in Namibia is Namdeb Diamond Corporation (Pty) Ltd, which accounts for an average of 1.6 million carats per annum. Other companies mining diamonds in Namibia include Sakawe Mining Corporation (Samincor) and Diamond Fields Namibia (Pty) Ltd.

Namibian marine diamond recovery has surpassed traditional land-based diamond production. In 2001, over 60 per cent of Namibia's approximately 1.6 million carats per year came from mining the seabed, with 95 per cent being gem quality. It is estimated that Namibia has only begun to exploit its vast marine diamond resources which have been calculated by experts to amount to some two billion carats.

For detailed information on coastal and marine diamond mining in Namibia, visit the website of the Namibian Ministry of Mines and Energy: http://www.mme.gov.na/gsn/diamond.htm

Phosphate Mining:

The possibility of mining Namibia's massive 1.5 billion ton undersea phosphate resources has advanced considerably with the recent awarding of a mining license to the Australian mining company Minemakers and its local partners.

The mining license covers an area of approximately 233 210 ha located 50 km offshore of Conception Bay in southern Namibia.

The mining license was issued with a number of terms and conditions and an environmental impact assessment is currently underway. Some of the potential impacts of seabed mining for phosphates include loss of habitat, impairment of food chain functionality and the possible release of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) into the water column. The Namibian fishing industry is particularly concerned about the impact that seabed mining will have on populations of hake and monk that are known to spawn and feed in the area where the mining is planned.

Oil and Gas Exploration and Production:

Namibia's offshore oil and gas resources are considered to be under-explored. To date, 14 exploration wells have been drilled in an area that covers more than 500000km2. Five of the wells are located in the Kudu Gas Field, the only commercially viable hydrocarbon discovery to have been made in Namibia to date.

Kudu is located approximately 170 kilometres north-west of Oranjemund in 170 metres of water. It is estimated to contain 1.3 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of proven natural gas reserves, but recent analysis suggests that reserves could reach three TCF, with potential up to nine TCF.

Development of the field will likely involve the construction of a subsea tieback that will connect the field to an 800 megawatt power plant to be constructed near Oranjemund. The successful exploitation of the Kudu Gas Field by Namibia is crucial for meeting the country's growing demand for energy.

Additional Reading:

Comprehensive information about the history, geography, economy and society of Namibia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Namibia

News from a local media house: http://www.namibian.com.na/

Statistics and facts from the World Factbook: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/wa.html

Namibian Tourism: http://www.namibiatourism.com.na

South Africa




Area: 1,221,037 km2 (25th)
Population: 50,586,757 (2011 estimate)
Population density: 41.4/km2
GDP (nominal 2009): $287.219 billion
GDP (per capita): $5,823
Currency: Rand (ZAR)
Internet TLD: .za
Calling code: +27
(Source: www.wikipedia.org)




Marine and Coastal Environment:

The South African coastline is 3 000 km long and extends from the Orange River in the west, on the border with Namibia, to Ponta do Ouro,adjacent to Mocambique, in the east,. The western coastal shelf is highly productivewhile the east coast is considerably less productive but has a high species diversity, including both endemic and IndoPacific species.

On the west coast, the productive waters of the Benguela Current support a number of commercially exploited fish species, including hake, anchovy, sardine, horse mackerel, tuna and snoek, as well as crustacean fisheries for rock lobster. Artisanal fisheries are growing in importance and recreational fishing for coastal species is popular.

South Africa is actively developing an offshore oil and gas industry and the exceptional natural beauty, biodiversity and cultural attributes of the country's coastline attract growing numbers of tourists, both local and international.


South Africa's commercial and recreational fishing industry is valued at between R4 and R5 billion per annum and provides employment for an estimated 27 700 people. South Africa's fisheries law (the Marine Living Resources Act of 1998) recognises three distinct fisheries sectors, namely commercial, recreational and subsistence fisheries. It is likely the law will be amended in the short to medium-term to include a fourth category of artisanal or small-scale fisheries.

A comprehensive restructuring of the South African fishing industry took place following the passage of the Marine Living Resources Act in 1998. A key tenet of the Act is to broaden participation in the fishing industry by allocating rights to small- and medium-sized black-owned companies. In order to accommodate new entrants the fishing rights of most large, established fishing companies were reduced. Long-term fishing rights were granted across all commercial fisheries in 2005 and 2006.

Marine fisheries in South Africa are diverse, both with respect to the species caught and the geardeployed. The largest industrial fisheries, by both volume and value, are the demersal hake trawl fishery and the small pelagic purse seinefishery for anchovy and sardine. These two fisheries are primarily based on the west coast, operating from the ports of Cape Town, Saldanha and St. Helena Bay. There are also small longline and handline fisheries for hake and an inshore trawl fishery. Collectively, these fisheries are allocated approximately six per cent of the total hake catch.

A small but successful midwater trawl fisherytargets horse mackerel on the Agulhas Bank.Other offshore fisheries are a tuna bait and pole fishery forlongfin and yellowfin tuna (operating out of Cape Town), a large pelagic longlinefishery for tuna, shark and billfish (operating around the whole coast and beyond the EEZ)and a restricted demersallongline fishery for Patagonian toothfish within the EEZ aroundthe Prince Edward Islands (also within the CCAMLR areas 58.6 and 58.7).

A commercial fishery for deep-water lobster (Palinurusgilchristi) is conducted on the southeast coastbetween East London and Cape Agulhas, while a more complex fishery for west coast rock lobster (Jasuslalandi) is conducted on the west coast. Both industrial operators and small-boat fishers land west coast rock lobster in a fishery that is plagued by many illegal operators.

The commercial fishery for squid is based on a single species, Loligo vulgaris reynaudii, commonly known as the chokka squid. The resource occurs relatively close inshore between Cape Town and East London. Squid are caught by hand using jigs.

One of the biggest fishery sectors in terms of areas fished and numbers of fishersinvolved is the linefish sector. This multi-faceted sector is complex with many commercial, recreational and subsistence users.

Small-scale and subsistence fisheries include a beach seinefishery distributed around the coast, a small-scale gill net fishery on the west coast, wildoyster picking and intertidal harvesting of mussels and otherspecies, particularly in the Pondoland and Kwazulu-Natal coastal regions.The highly controversial fishery for abalone Haliotismidaein the Western Capewas closed in 2007 due to near-stock collapse. The fishery was re-opened in 2011 and a modest annual take is allocated to licensed fishers. However, the problem of illegal abalone fishing has not been resolved.

For detailed information on South African fisheries, download a National Fishery Sector Overview from the website of FAO: http://www.fao.org/fishery/countrysector/FI-CP_ZA/en

Marine Diamond Mining:

In South Africa, diamonds that were transported from their inland source along water courses to the west coast, occur in littoral and marine deposits extending from above the shoreline to the edge of the continental shelf. Namibia has the richest known marine diamond deposits in the world, estimated at over 80 million carats; South Africa's offshore diamond resources are generally considered to be small when compared to those of Namibia and the quality of diamonds is somewhat lower.

Mining in shallow water areas (<20 m water depth) is conducted by diversworking from small boats, primarily in the surf zone. Exploration and mining activities in deeper waters are undertaken using more sophisticated mining techniques from large ships. Two mining methods are used:

-horizontal system: a seabed crawler brings diamond-bearing gravels to the vessel through flexible slurry hoses.
-vertical system: a large-diameter drilling device mounted on a compensated steel pipe drill string, recovers diamond-bearing gravels from the seabed.

The offshore diamond mining industry is dominated by three companies: De Beers Mines Ltd. which holds primarily mid to deep concessions; Alexcor Ltd. which holds mainly shallow concessions; and Trans Hex Operations which holds both shallow and deep concessions.

Petroleum Exploration and Production:

Offshore production of oil and gas (which is converted to liquid fuel at Mossel Bay) fulfills roughly seven per cent of South Africa's oil requirements. Approximately 69 per cent of the country's crude oil requirements are imported from elsewhere, with the balance (±24 per cent) obtained from coal, using Sasol's synthol process.

Oil and gas reserves have been identified in several parts of South Africa's exclusive economic zone. Most wells have been drilled in less than 250 m of water and the Bredasdorp Basin, situated on the Agulhas Bank, has been the focus of most drilling activity. The Oribi, Oryx and Sable oil fields have been developed in this region. A floating oil production facility called Orca supplies a crude oil refinery in Cape Town via a shuttle tanker.

The FA gas fields are situated about 90km offshore of Mossel Bay. They produce gas condensates which are transported by pipeline to PetroSA's production facility near Mossel Bay. Here, petrol, diesel and kerosene are produced. In 2006, the average production of these fields was approximately 3 900 barrels of oil and 160 million cubic feet of gas per day.

A number of operators are evaluating oil and gas potential on the west coast and the 10-million acre Ibhubesi Gas Field is being developed by gas exploration company Forest Exploration International and its project partners. Forest Exploration is to invest between US$3 and US$4-billion in the Ibhubesi Gas Field over 20 years with the goal of producing electricity from natural gas.

For detailed information on South Africa's oil and gas industry visit the website of the US Energy Information administration: http://www.eia.gov/countries/cab.cfm?fips=SF

Additional Reading:

Comprehensive information about the history, geography, economy and society of South Africa: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Africa

News from a local media house: http://mg.co.za

South African government online: www.gov.za

South African tourism: www.southafrica.net